Adolf Hitler shown in Landsberg Prison after being
convicted as a result of the Munich Putsch.
I am not sure if this photo, like many other many
NAZI pre-war and wartime era photos, patents, inventions
and other similar items, are void as a results of being considered
"war booty" and are no longer protected for patent
or copyright purposes.
One of the problems in researching NAZI WWII politics and the resulting policies that occurred in Germany during the 1930s thru to the end of the 2nd World War is that many of reasons behind the decisions were never documented. Some high ranking people in the Third Reich kept diaries, Joseph Goebbels for example, but the writers often recorded what happened, the decisions that were made, but seldom the reasons behind the decisions that were made.
The style that Hitler used to govern the National Socialist Germans Workers Party (NSDAP, aka NAZI; the D stands for Deutschland), and thus Germany, was one of vaguely stating what he wanted done to various people or departments then those people would implement the policies and enforce it. He also often set up duplicate sets of government groups to carry out the same policies, building programs, enforcement, and had them competing against one another. This kept people fractured and thus he was kept him informed since most everything had to go through him to be approved. It also meant he often heard both sides of a position since two different groups were often given the same task. The charisma of that leader and their access to the Chancellor's office would dictate the power that the group had. Thus, if you were in favor with Hitler then you got prestige to speak on his behalf in your department as what rules to write and so your version of a policy implemented the way you wanted it, or a government contract. Meeting notes would be written down, but the reasoning behind Hitler's decision on that - policy papers, background materials, never were. Just decisions as to who was allowed to do what.
A good gaining facts without a context reference of background material can be found by looking at the diaries that German combat units kept (Allied units kept them also). For information on that unit's military history it is great since it recorded engagements, losses, and other facts. However, just like personal diaries, they seldom recorded the reasons why actions of the unit commanders were taken.
The "Great War" of 1914-1918 escalated into the global conflict that it became due to entangling treaties of the European countries. Military treaties are pretty basic: "If you attack me, my friends will come to my defense so you better not attack." What started out as a political crisis due to the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand escalated into armed conflict when the large nations came to the defense of the smaller nations in the Balkans though these alliances.
Military treaties took on a more serious note starting in the early 1800s. The military treaties were created for very specific reasons, intently enforced ,and advertised to other nations to an extent seldom seen since 1980. The active solicitation, enforcement, and advertisement of signed treaties is why smaller countries allied themselves with the larger ones: to help guarantee their protection from their neighbors. The smaller countries alliance was done to try and ensure that no neighboring country would dare attack them since it would bring in a very large country on their side which would then easily defeat the aggressor. However, the Balkan nations animosity toward each other stretched back hundreds of years and when these deep rooted fears, slights, religious differences, were brought to the forefront by the assassination, the worry of escalating into a larger conflict was not considered by these small countries: it was time to enforce the treaties signed over the previous decades.
Thus, when Austria-Hungarian Empire started military action the entangling treaties were honored by each nation which resulted in every nation but seven in Europe fighting in the Great War.
The end of the First World War saw the creation of many new nation states in Europe. From Finland north of Russia, Central Europe with Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Austria, Bulgaria, and new states in the Balkans like Albania, along with the breakup of the Turkish empire which created out of its demise the various states of the Middle East under the protectorship (control) of many western nations were created. This also happened in Africa and in the Far East where Japan gained new land in Manchuria and various Pacific Islands.
New nations also meant new military treaties. The most important treaties were the ones in central Europe with Poland, and the Czechoslovakian nation which was created out of Germany, Russia, and the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
These new nations to the east and south of Germany had defense treaties with the Western powers. They were explicitly written to ensure that Germany did not invade them else France and Britain, would invade Germany. With the German Weimar Republic restricted to 100,000 troops due to the Treaty of Versailles, and no restriction on the size of the Anglo-French armies, any attack by Germany using these troops would result in the quick military defeat of Germany by a half million man (or larger) force coming from the west.
The scope of the fighting in The Great War (only later referred to as World War One) was immense both in the losses of personnel, plus the monetary cost to pay for it, was a great inhibitor to the western nations. The politicians in charge in France and England (United Kingdom) especially, were very afraid of having another social and economic cost put onto their nations again. Politically they would lose their jobs. This was because many citizens were disillusioned with their leadership in the war, so the politicians in charge strove to avoid direct confrontation with Germany.
When Adolf Hitler became the legal Chancellor of Germany in 1933, he immediately began to exploit this fear that the west had of a new war. Herr Hitler (as Winston Churchill often referred to him during the early part of the conflict) was a natural political risk taker, but he was keenly aware of the social fears of the politicians of the western nations about a new war.
Some of Hitler's ideas of what the west would do in a political situation were wishful thinking, some were confirmed based on the initial treaty violation gambles that the Hitler (legally Germany was still a Republic, but operationally it was a dictatorship) violated which were won. These initial political ploys, and the resulting successes, reinforced his initial mind set of the political will of the west so that in Herr Hitler's mental mind it became a fact as to what the west would always do in a future political or military crisis.
Italy was on the side of the Allies during the First World War and shared in the spoils of victory by gaining land in Europe — most readily seen by their gaining of the port of Trieste— as well as land in Africa.
In 1927 Beneito Mussolini became the legally elected head of the government in 1927, as did Hitler in 1933, and started to transform that nation into more of a constitutional dictatorship. His power was both granted by the government and limited at the same time. Elected government representatives had more influence in making policies than the German one did. (After the 1933 passage of the Enabling Acts by the German Reichstag, the NAZI party - Hitler - effectively became a dictatorship.) The basic idea of Fascism had been around a long time (just like Communism) but Italy was the first nation to elect it into a leadership roll thus controlling a nation.
The French nation was politically and militarily firmly in the defensive mind set - the direct result of that type of thinking was in having the Maginot Line built. It was designed to be a bulwark against German aggression - thought to be "impossible" to break through when it was initially designed. It was also surmised that if assaulted, the cost in time and men to successfully break thru the defenses before French reinforcements would arrive would be easily seen by the German attack planners, that they would never attack.
This did not fully prevent the French from creating new weapons, but these weapons were designed to support the defense of the Franco-German border.
The British Empire politicians were no less eager to enter another war as the French, but the lower level people, and those outside the established government like Winston Churchill, were more pragmatic and worked in the background toward re-arming the UK for a conflict with Germany even while within the established government. This build-up was slowed by those that were in power from 1933 through 1939 who were firmly committed to avoid a war at any costs.
The re-occupation of the Rhineland with German troops, prohibited by the Treaty of Versailles, went unanswered. The annexation of Austria via a popular vote (externally looking valid, internally was greatly manipulated to ensure a victory) was accomplished, then the forced crisis in the Sudetenland which resulted in Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain going to Munich to barter away part of Czechoslovakia to Germany to ensure the peace in Europe, kept his political victories successes perfect and reinforced his own mind set of being always right. The subsequent occupation of all of the rest of the Czechoslovakia nation that was also unanswered militarily by the west (or east) firmly reinforced Hitler's mind that the west would never stand up to anything that he did.
A side effect of Hitler's success was that those within the German government who counciled against Hitler's gambles — which he continuously won — were deemed to be nay-sayers, weaklings, anti-German, anti NAZI Party, and were thus were marginalized and subsequently ignored (or never consulted again). Hitler's string of political victories would have never succeeded if more astute politicians had been in charge in the France and England. Adolf Hitler indeed understood his political opposites. The political and military planners within Germany itself whose advice was opposite of what Hitler planned to do, never took into any account the political aspect in their war planning.
The main treaty that would act as a tripwire and spring a war were between Poland, France, and England. Poland, having been re-created out of Russia, Germany, and the Austrian-Empire after a period of nonexistence, was looked on by the west as a special case.Footnote 1 Poland had been fought over and through many times throughout history. Many battles of the First World War in the East were actually fought in what was now Poland. This section of Europe was the natural invasion path between Russia and Central Europe.
The Danzig Corridor, created by the Treaty of Versailles, separated East Prussia from the rest of the German nation. This stretch of Poland was largely populated by ethnic Germans. As an artificial creation of other nations, neither Poland nor Germany liked the situation — but both had to deal with it. The fact that part of Poland now bisected Germany — done to ensure Poland had a path to the Baltic and to lessen Germany's ability to wage war by removing lots of territory that it controlled — angered Germans in general, and gave it an opportunity.
The Great War — now known as World War I — had lessons for all nations. Some of the new knowledge spurred on development of new equipment and ideas which enabled World War II to occur; others lessons were more in changes to tactics of existing equipment. The U-Boats of the German Fleet fell into this camp. Footnote 2
U-Boats in the first world war were both a success of modern equipment but at the same time severely limited by the technology of the time. The range of submarines on all sides was very short at the start. A German U-Boat could not travel more than 2500 miles out from base before having to turn back, making their effective range some 1500 miles from base. (By 1918 German U-Boats could get to the US East Coast and return to Belgium's Osten port). The size of any fuel powered submarine determines it's range. The larger the submarine, the more fuel it can carry and the farther it can travel before having to return home. Size also determines the number of torpedoes that can be carried.
The Imperial German submarine fleet was a great worry to the British. A single ship with 50 men could sink a battleship that has thousands on it. And they did. This arm of the German Navy was not as impressive to show off, nor were they a glory assignment to those in wanting to move up in rank, but the men in that unit were of the same high caliber - sometimes more - than the battleship fleet captains. Plus, they had to be naturally aggressive and independent thinkers to command a submarine. This natural tendency of ships of the line to downgrade other parts of the service to promote their own, it occurred in all navies, kept the U-Boat arm from accomplishing the task of taking Britain out of the war by stopping supplies to and from the British Isles.
A big factor in this failure was the politicians in Germany. The U-Boat was totally new weapon and no "rules" had been formulated to account for it — nor its best use and defense against it. Thus, it fell into a category of a "terror weapon." Using a submarine to its military advantage of stealth attack against all military targets and civilian shipping could bring more nations into the war against Germany. Civilians of a nation would be killed as a direct result of a conscious attack against them as they did their job.
This idea of not allowing submarines to attack - or attack in such a way as to almost ensure its destruction later on - was promoted heavily since England had the most to lose in a campaign of unrestricted submarine warfare.
There really had never been "civilian" ships during a war that was exempt from attack. Privateers had taken Spanish merchant ships during the many wars against Spain, US Civil War Confederate ships had sunk Northern ships and the Federals had in turn had captured or sunk Confederate flagged ships. The biggest difference between surface and U-Boat attacks was that the U-Boat attackers could not be detected till after the attack. These rules of engagement on the high seas against merchant ships dated back to the time of Henry the VII.
During the Great War the U-Boats were given orders to sink enemy ships only after inspecting them to see if they carried "war" contraband; then the orders were to just warn and sink enemy flagged ships (to allow the crew to get off), then sink on sight without warning, then finally any ship in the declared combat zone around The British Isles without warning by mid 1915. The sink without warning orders allowed the U-Boat campaign to cause great damage to the British and French war effort. This last change in combat restriction is what enabled the Lusitania to be attacked and sunk by a single torpedo (secondary explosion recorded by survivors of the ship and the German submarine captain was likely coal dust exploding in an empty coal bunker) in April of 1916 off the coast of Ireland. Footnote 3
The drift toward un-announced attacks was caused by many factors one of which was the use of wireless on cargo ships. If a British merchant was stopped to be inspected, they had more than enough time to send a signal to announce the presence of a U-Boat before the enemy came on board to see if the ship was carrying war goods. During this time the Royal Navy would be on the way - and the U-Boat was certainly in danger then.
After the sinking of the Lusitania the un-conditional U-Boats attacks were suspended. Once again shipping proceed a lot easier to England on the high seas.Footnote 3 In the spring of 1917 the German Navy convinced the German Government to again allow un-restricted U-Boat warfare and its reinstatement was just one of many factors that prodded the citizens of the US to push for war against the German Empire.
The German U-Boat fleet campaign from 1916 to 1917 when "sink on sight" was halted lost them the blockade war. During that suspension time the British Navy was heavy into developing anti-submarine equipment and tactics: both listening gear and the introduction of the convoy system. By the time in 1917 when un-restricted attacks resumed the tide had turned against the submarines and the successes that they had early in the war could not be repeated.
During this halt of un-restricted attacks (and even before) flying a US flag was a guarantee of a safe passage. A US flagged ship could sail to England carrying war material and never be sunk. This meant that countries friendly to the UK could send raw or finished goods to help the Allied war effort - while the same could not happen for Germany due to the effective British blockade of all German ports.
The United States entry into the war caused severe harm to the German naval effort: all the US flagged ships now could now be chartered by the US Government and be organized into a large scale supply system to send cargo to the war zone. The downside was that now a US flagged ship could be sunk.
A secondary effect of the US entering the war was that the need to use British yards to build more supply ships to replace those sunk instead of combat ships was not critical anymore. This allowed more warships to be built to fight the U-Boats - mainly destroyers.
The sudden influx of American cargo ships into the supply system, and the US ability to supply both raw and finished goods to the factories of the Allied Nations on a massive scale, ensured the defeat of the Kaiser's ground army in France and Belgium.
When Germany invaded Poland on September 1, 1939 both England and France hesitated. Both nations pursued political solutions in an effort to stop Germany from continuing its attack. This proved to be useless and on September 3 the United Kingdom (England) Declared War against Germany as did France. Then they did nothing. Sitzkreig settled in along the Western Front.
The Soviet Union (USSR) also did not protest - but of course the Soviet-NAZI treaty signed in August was the reason why. Late in September Soviet forces invaded Poland from the east and occupied the rest of the nation as negotiated in the treaty. Later on the Stalin's Soviet annexed Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia into the Soviet Union. German units actually had to pull out of the land it had captured anywhere from 20 to 100 miles due to treaty.Footnote 4
The start of the war saw the U-Boat fleet with 58 modern submarines on hand. All German forces had been told that war would not occur till 1941, and here it was September 1939. Regardless, the German underseeboot fleet went into action and started gaining successes against naval and merchant ships.
The same strategy of a U-Boat blockade that was pursued in World War I was again instituted. The Type VII U-Boat, however, was much better than the World War I counterpart. The tactics had also changed: they were centrally controlled and coordinated by Admiral Donitz using Enigma encoded messages. Footnote 5
The British Navy again instituted the convoy system after a few months and ships sailing from the world ports, when there was time enough to coordinate a convoy - and enough escorts were around - shipped sailed the blue oceans for protection from the U-Boat arm of the Kriegsmarine.
America again declared its neutrality but the same problem that the German Navy of World War I experienced now occurred again: Neutral ships would again sail to England to help her more than German friendly nations to Germany. (Swedish ships were the only exception.) The ability to defeat submarines had vastly improved during the inter-war years, especially by using aircraft. Ths forced the u-boats to range farther from Germany to be truly effective. Long range bombers, seaplanes, and aircraft carriers now roamed the sea lanes looking for submarines.
America's politicians in charge, President Franklin Roosevelt leading the way, were clearly on the side of England and France. The United States enacted several pieces of legislation and policies that clearly helped England:
Even with these brazen acts, from war's start in 1939 thru December 1941, American ships could still sail the world's oceans to the allied nations nations without being attacked by German U-Boats.
The people in charge, whether elected, had overthrown the prior government, or there as a result of history of kingdoms, still have to pander to the general will of the population. The mood can be changed over time, but the present time is what matters most to the politicans in charge. President Roosevelt (FDR), knew this very well.
When the war broke out the US population as a whole did not favor getting involved. The USA had gotten into the Great War in 1917, and the political aims of that war was never fullfilled — witness the failed League of Nations and now state of war in Europe. The population of the US was VERY much East coast and Midwest centered. A significant part of the population was only one or two generations removed from when their forbears had emigrated to the US. The losses in the 1st World War (though greatly below that of other nations) was still remembered. The basic attitude was "they're at it again, let them figure it out themselves." To openly support the United Kingdom, the commonwealth nations, France, and all the others for war would quickly become derivesive and be defeated - there was no compelling threat, directly or indirectly, seen, or reasoned to be found, for Germany going against the United States of America.
As of 27 June 2005.
Mount Holyoke College World War II Document Timeline URL links to many documents 1938-1946